Improving Working Conditions and Rights for Cambodian Domestic WorkersIndependent Democracy of Informal Economy AssociationOpenCall for Proposalclosing date: 31 Dec 2018
The Kingdom of Cambodia, commonly known as Cambodia, is one of the Southeast Asian countries supported by Voice. Despite having a growing economy, there is a huge disparity between people living in rural and urban areas. This disparity particularly affects discriminated and marginalised groups and as a result their vulnerabilities increase.
Below follows a short overview of the context, resulting in priorities available in the next tab.
According to Civicus, Cambodia has a repressed civic space. In spite of having more than 5,000 registered civil society organisations, many appear to be inactive. With the passage of the Law on Association and Non-Governmental Organisations (LANGO) in 2013, there is an alarming tension arising between some organisations and the Government of Cambodia, particularly those who are working for human rights and transparency and accountability.
Status Quo of Voice Target Groups
The 2017 Summary Context Analysis summarises the standing of marginalised and discrminated groups in Cambodia.
People with disabilities in Cambodia continuously face stigma, discrimination, and exclusion reinforced institutionally and socially. There are existing policies that provide services and accessibility to their needs, yet it lacks full implementation. PWDs comprise 10% of Cambodia’s unemployment rate, while a large majority of disabled people are working in the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and informal sectors.
The Cambodian Constitution guarantees equal rights for all yet the Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, and Intersex (LGBTI) continuously face discrimination from their families, community, and society. They face tremendous stigma if they “come out” and live openly. The law enforcers are no exemption: they openly discriminate and use laws to detain LGBTIs due to their sexual orientation and gender identity.
LGBTIs are restrained to limited economic opportunities. In order to acquire access to work, they need to hide their sexuality.
The number of Women facing exploitation, abuse, and/or violence in Cambodia are huge. Laws exist in protecting women from violence and abuse, yet there are resentful treatment by law enforcers. This refrains them to fully access the justice system. Women are also bound by heteronormative roles that delimits economic opportunities. In terms of politics, Cambodian women remain under-represented in decision-making.
Age-discriminated groups, particularly the elderly, are rapidly increasing in number in Cambodia. Many older people were given the responsibility to take care of children. Legally, there are no social safety nets available for elderly people in Cambodia. As oppose to the traditional position elderly people have in the society, they are being discriminated due to their age. This is evident in the workforce, households, and healthcare. They have limited access to credits, loans, and land ownership.
Young people comprise more than 30% of the population. Child labour continues to be a challenge. They were taken out of schools to do menial and dangerous jobs.
Indigenous peoples and ethnic minorities still have limited access to government services and programs. This is intensified particularly to indigenous peoples living in remote areas. They are also discouraged to go to schools as classes are taught in Khmer, and not available on indigenous languages. The differences in cultural practices, migration histories, and sense of identity intensifies the divide among ethnic groups in the Khmer society, leading the government to consider them as separate.
Indigenous peoples have huge barricade in political participation. They fear the local authorities, and at the same time they feel unsupported nor unrecognised. Ancestral domains have been a highly political issue which creates conflict between them and the government and private sector.
Oxfam, coordinating Voice in Cambodia strives to give all people the opportunity to have a say in policies that help shape their lives and unleash their potential. To this end, Voice in Cambodia wants to support all five target groups within Voice.
Oxfam in Cambodia recognises that between and within the marginalised communities in the country, the people being most excluded are those facing overlapping, intersecting vulnerabilities.
Here are the five target groups within Voice in Cambodia:
- People living with disabilities
- Lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans-gender, intersex (LGBTI) people
- Indigenous groups and ethnic minorities
- Women facing exploitation, abuse and/or violence
- Age discriminated vulnerable groups notably the young and elderly
However it is recognised that women and girls are suffering double exclusion and Voice in Cambodia will thus prioritise the first three groups with a focus on women and girls as a cross-cutting issue (please see the below graph).
Any proposal which will not focus on the above will simply not be eligible for funding.
Projects funded by Voice will need to address one or more of the impact themes:
- Improving access to (productive) resources (finance, land and water) and employment
- Improving access to social services, health and education in particular
- Fostering space for political participation
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